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Kenley Common Croydon
   
Summary: Kenley Common is a remnant of ancient commonland, preserved in 1883 when it was acquired by the Corporation of London. At that time it also took in Kenley Airfield, land for which was taken during WWI; in 1925 additional land to the east was given as public open space in compensation. Some land on the airfield perimeter has since been transferred back and contains remnants of fighter pens (Blast Bays) from the historic RAF airfield. Features of the commonland survive in the form of boundaries and old trees, and the common today consists of chalk grassland, ancient woodland, with cattle and sheep continuing to graze here.
Previous / Other name:
Site location: Hayes Lane, Kenley Lane,
Postcode: CR8 5BZ > Google Map
Type of site: Public Open Land
Date(s): medieval; 1883
Designer(s):
Listed structures: SAM: Blast Bays
Borough: Croydon
Site ownership: City of London Corporation
Site management: West Wickham and Coulsdon Commons
Open to public? Yes
Opening times: unrestricted
Special conditions:
Facilities: horse rides
Events: Various events and activities, including Kenley Fun Day
Public transport: Rail: Whyteleafe, Upper Warlingham, Kenley. Bus: 407, 09, 411, 434
The information shown above was correct at the time of the last update 01/12/2006
Please check with the site owner or manager for latest news. www.cityoflondon.gov.uk

Fuller information:

Kenley Common is within the West Wickham and Coulsdon Commons group of 6 areas managed by the Corporation of London, 3 others of which are in Croydon: Farthing Downs, Coulsdon Common and Riddlesdown. Kenley Common was probably cleared of forest in prehistoric times and then likely to have been cultivated for crops and later used for grazing. In medieval times Kenley Common and Riddlesdown (q.v.) formed part of the waste land of the Manor of Watendone. The Lord of the Manor did not have exclusive use of this commonland, the Statute of Merton having guaranteed the rights of commoners in 1235 to the products of the soil, pasture for livestock, and gathering material for fuel, livestock bedding and roofing. However when the value of the land increased following the coming of the railway in the C19th, the then Lord of the Manor of Coulsdon, Edmund Byron, began enclosing land and appropriated some 150 acres at Hartley Down. One neighbouring landowner, William Hall, refused to sell to Byron and eventually approached the Corporation of London with an offer to sell his land and commoners rights in the hopes that the Corporation would protect the land from further encroachment as it had done in Epping.

As a result the Corporation negotiated with Byron for ownership of Kenley Common and in 1883 purchased 347 acres, which excluded the commonland already enclosed and sold to others. The acquisition of both Riddlesdown and Kenley Common 'for public recreation and enjoyment' and 'to preserve the natural aspect' was enabled under the powers of the Corporation of London (Open Spaces) Act 1878. In 1883 Kenley Common consisted of 70 acres, surrounded by land owned by George Cutt of Welcomes Farm and John Young who owned Kenley House (q.v.), both of whom had appropriated areas of the common. In the late C19th the common was used for grazing sheep by various landowners with or without grazing rights; the Common Keeper impounded sheep whose owners were without grazing rights. In 1891 an area was turned into a golf course, recalled in the name of Golf Road.

Land at the centre of the Common was taken for Kenley Airfield (q.v.) during WWI under the Defence of the Realm Act and bylaws eventually restricted access by the public. After the war the land was not handed back and the airfield was upgraded for the new Royal Air Force. In return for the appropriation of 51 acres of commonland, the Corporation of London was given 61 acres of farmland to the east overlooking Whyteleafe; this land was adapted for public use in 1923-5, paid for by the Air Ministry and became part of the public open space in 1925 when it was officially handed over. Under the Air Ministry (Kenley Common Acquisition) Act 1922 no building was allowed on former commonland, which was to revert to the Corporation if no longer needed for military purposes; the airfield would not be used for civil aircraft and would be opened on public holidays. The Corporation of London still has the option to purchase the land back at the market value for agricultural land when the airfield is no longer required for military purposes. In 1924 the airfield was upgraded and further land acquisition took place in 1928. Extensive rebuilding took place in 1932-34.

Kenley Airfield was in the front line of national defence when war broke out in 1939 and the airfield was further enlarged taking more public open space by Act of Parliament. By December 1939 the runways were extended to 800 yards and the perimeter track laid out to its present configuration. Woodland at the northern end of the runway was grubbed up or coppiced in 1939-40 to create more space for take off and landing; small trees overlooking the valley were coppiced and Local Defence volunteers dug trenches in 1940 and gun positions were established. All entrances to the Common were closed in 1940, remaining so until 1947/8 when the process of de-requisitioning and restoration of the Common took place. 'Fighter pens' at Kenley were completed by 1940, when Kenley had become home to 3 fighter squadrons. During the Battle of Britain Kenley and its squadrons were continuously in the front line and suffered a number of raids and the airfield continued to be important up to VE Day and after WWII it was an operational airfield until 1978. The core of the airfield remains in Ministry of Defence ownership. No longer able to be used for powered flight, it is still used for gliding training and by a private gliding club. Once it was closed for powered flight substantial areas on the perimeter were transferred to the Corporation of London and public access was restored to the outer areas of the airfield, including a number of the original fighter pens and the RAF Association has erected a memorial in Portland Stone to those who served at Kenley in one of the Fighter Pens, which is the focus of annual ceremonies such as Remembrance Day.

Since its original acquisition in 1883 the shape and extent of Kenley Common has almost doubled in size as a result of Governmental compulsory purchase and land acquisitions/re-acquisitions. Some features of the historic commonland survive in the form of boundaries and old trees, the common today consists of chalk grassland, ancient woodland with fine views over the Caterham valley and North Downs. Traditional haymaking, hedge-laying and cattle and sheep grazing still take place here.

Sources consulted:

Kenley Common leaflet, Corporation of London
Grid ref: TQ331589
Size in hectares: 56
   
On EH National Register : No
EH grade:
Site on EH Heritage at Risk list:
Registered common or village green
on Commons Registration Act 1965:
Common exempted under 1965 Act
Protected under London Squares
Preservation Act 1931:
No
 
The information below is taken from the relevant Local Authority's planning legislation, which was correct at the time of research but may have been amended in the interim. Please check with the Local Authority for latest planning information.
On Local List: No
In Conservation Area: No
Conservation Area name:
Tree Preservation Order: Not known
Nature Conservation Area: Yes - Metropolitan Importance
Green Belt: Yes
Metropolitan Open Land: No
Special Policy Area: Yes - Archaeological Priority Zone (part)
Other LA designation: Part SAM
   

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