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Lakeside Enfield
   
Summary: The small lake at Lakeside was once within the C18th landscape park of South Lodge, which originated as one of the 3 lodges built for keepers when Enfield Chase was divided into 3 walks c.1419. William Pitt acquired the lease of South Lodge in 1747 and improved the house and laid out the grounds, enhancing 2 existing lakes with a wooded island and rustic bridge, and setting other features in an Arcadian landscape. Suburban housing was built over the estate in the 1930s for Laing's South Lodge Estate but the old boundary is still traceable in lines of residential streets. A plaque on a house in Merryhills Drive indicates where the old South Lodge once stood, and records William Pitt's association. The lake, once a larger body of water, is fringed with mature trees.
South Lodge, Enfield Chase c.1808. Private collection
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Previous / Other name: South Lodge; South Bailey Lodge
Site location: Lakeside/ South Lodge Crescent, Enfield
Postcode: EN2 7NW > Google Map
Type of site: Garden Feature Remnants; Public Open Land
Date(s): C18th; 1930s
Designer(s):
Listed structures:
Borough: Enfield
Site ownership: LB Enfield
Site management: Housing or Highways
Open to public? Yes
Opening times: unrestricted
Special conditions:
Facilities:
Events:
Public transport: Rail: Enfield Chase then bus. Tube: Oakwood (Piccadilly) then bus. Bus: 517
South Lodge, Enfield Chase c.1808. Private collection
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The information shown above was correct at the time of the last update 01/02/2011
Please check with the site owner or manager for latest news. www.enfield.gov.uk

Fuller information:

The small lake at Lakeside was once within the C18th landscape park of South Lodge, and up until suburban development of the area it was a larger body of water. To the north, the name of South Lodge Farm recalls the area's history. South Lodge was one of three lodges of Enfield Chase, established to accommodate the keepers when the chase was divided into three walks after 1419. West Lodge still survives as West Lodge Park Hotel (q.v.). Enfield Chase, a deer park to which the people of the parishes of Enfield, Edmonton, Mimms and Hadley also had commoners rights, was in the ownership of the Crown and the Duchy of Lancaster from 1421. The extensive woodland around Enfield had been granted to Geoffrey de Mandeville by William the Conqueror as part of the manors of Edmonton and Enfield. It appears that de Mandeville, who became Earl of Essex, converted the Enfield woodland into Enfield Chase in c.1136-40, enclosing over 8,000 acres for the purpose of deer hunting. It is likely to have been stocked with deer from Old Park, where the manor was located, now Bush Hill Golf Course (q.v.). By the C14th the Lords of the Manor of Enfield were the de Bohun family, Earls of Hereford, who remained in possession until 1419 when it passed to Henry V, whose father, the Earl of Derby and later Henry IV, had married Mary, younger daughter and co-heir of the late Humphry de Bohun. In 1421 Enfield Chase and Manor were allocated to the King as part of the Duchy of Lancaster, which remained landlord until the Civil War. In 1635 the land enclosed for South Lodge was 65 acres.

Soon after Charles I was executed in 1649 plans were made by the new Parliament to dispose of the royal parks, forests, chases and manors in order to provide funds to pay the army. Following a survey of the land, although sale of Enfield Chase was still under fierce discussion, in 1650 it was decided to sell the three lodges as well as Old Park and Theobalds Park. As a result South Lodge was sold for £904, at which time the land belonging to the lodge included an orchard, a 'meanly planted' garden and 58 acres of land containing 735 trees. From 1669 the property was leased by Sir Henry Bellasyse, and comprised the house, large barns, stables and coach houses, a garden and large orchard, with 75 acres of meadow and pasture and a rabbit warren. An allowance of £6 a year was made to each walk for keepers' wages, with £30 a year to buy hay for the deer. The keeper had the right each year to take a hundred loads of firewood, 2 bucks and 2 does, and to pasture unlimited cattle on the Chase. In the late C17th the Master of the Game, Ranger, and Bailiff of the Chase was Sir Basil Firebrace, whose residence was South Lodge. In 1716 Major General John Pepper purchased 24 years' leasehold of the offices on the Chase including its three keeperships and the lodges. His ability to profit from this was marred by the problems of timber and deer stealing on the Chase. General Pepper died in 1725, and in 1727 the remainder of his lease on Enfield Chase was purchased by James Brydges, first Duke of Chandos, including the lease of South Lodge, then tenanted by a Mr Cravenburgh.

In 1747 the lease of South Lodge was acquired by the Rt Hon William Pitt, later Earl of Chatham, left to him as a bequest together with £10,000. Pitt improved the house and laid out parkland and pleasure grounds in the surrounding fields. His transformation of the 25-hectare estate included enhancement of 2 existing lakes with a wooded island and rustic bridge, and among his other embellishments were a hexagon seat, a Chinese seat, a Temple of Pan, an arch, a gateway and a Pyramid that according to carpenters' bills for 1748 was '16ft square and 21ft Perpendicular'. In 1749 a circular garden seat was built to go next to the house and also a greenhouse, built at a cost of £160 15s. Pitt's efforts were much praised in his day; Gilbert West called the Arcadian grounds 'a little paradise', and the Temple of Pan was particularly admired. Mrs Montagu, from whom Pitt purchased Hayes Place in Kent in 1756, waxed lyrical on the Temple, 'shady oaks and beautiful verdure', and Thomas Whately praised the perfection of its location in the landscape. George Mason, writing in the second edition of 'An Essay on Design in Gardening' also commended Pitt, suggesting that he anticipated the later taste for the Picturesque. Pitt was an occasional resident here, and after he left in 1752 it was owned by Fane William Sharpe Esq, who was succeeded by Miss Sharpe and then by Thomas Skinner, Alderman of London and Lord Mayor in 1794. By this time the estate had become somewhat neglected but Skinner restored it 'to its original beauty' according to William Robinson, who in his 'History and Antiquities of Enfield' (1823) described 'this enviable spot': 'The plantations, which are well wooded, are laid out with great taste, and two fine pieces of water add much to the beauty of the scenery; the views from different parts of the grounds towards Epping Forest, and adjacent hills, are rich and extensive.' By the time Robinson was writing, South Lodge was leased by a Mr Box.

Edward Ford in his History of Enfield (1873) enumerates many fine trees found on the South Lodge estate at that time, many of which were likely to date from Pitt’s time. He lists two fine Cedars of Lebanon, an old Spanish Chestnut, two fine deciduous cypress trees on the banks of a lake, and a 98 foot high Silver Fir that was struck by lightning in 1868. By 1911 a preparatory and boarding school run by Messrs W Knyvett Robertson and H L David was established at South Lodge. Suburban housing was later built over the estate for Laing's South Lodge Estate of 1935-40 when the lodge was demolished. A plaque on a house in Merryhills Drive near the junction with Greystoke Gardens commemorates the approximate location of the house and Pitt's residence here.

Another remnant of the C18th landscape lies near the former south boundary where Boxer's Lake Open Space (q.v.) remains from a series of fish ponds shown on earlier maps. The boundary of the old estate is still traceable in lines of residential streets on Lonsdale Drive, Lowther Drive and Enfield Road, etc. The lake is surrounded by trees, including mature and ornamental species such as Monkey Puzzle.

Sources consulted:

David Pam 'The Story of Enfield Chase', Enfield Preservation Society, 1984; William Robinson, 'The History and Antiquities of Enfield', 1823; Revd George Hodson (Church History) and Edward Ford (General History), 'A History of Enfield in the County of Middlesex including its Royal and Ancient Manors, the Chase and the Duchy of Lancaster, with Notices of its Worthies, and its Natural History, Etc. Also an account of The Church and the Charities, and a History of the New River' (Enfield Press, printed by J H Meyers, 1873); Cuthbert Wilfrid Whitaker, 'An Illustrated Historical, Statistical & Topographical Account of the Urban District of Enfield', 1911; Michael Symes, 'Pitt the Elder and Landscape Gardening', Garden History (date?); Revd George H Hodson and Edward Ford, 'A History of Enfield in the county of Middlesex including its Royal and Ancient Manors, the Chase and the Duchy of Lancaster with notes of its Worthies, and its Natural History, etc. Also an account of The Church and the Charities and a History of the New River' (Enfield Press, 1873).
Grid ref: TQ298963
Size in hectares:
   
On EH National Register : No
EH grade:
Site on EH Heritage at Risk list: No
Registered common or village green
on Commons Registration Act 1965:
No
Protected under London Squares
Preservation Act 1931:
No
 
The information below is taken from the relevant Local Authority's planning legislation, which was correct at the time of research but may have been amended in the interim. Please check with the Local Authority for latest planning information.
On Local List:
In Conservation Area: No
Conservation Area name:
Tree Preservation Order: No
Nature Conservation Area: Yes - Local Importance
Green Belt: Yes
Metropolitan Open Land: No
Special Policy Area: Yes - Enfield Chase Heritage Area AOSC (Area of Special Character)
Other LA designation: Local Open Land
   

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